Iron Physiology

Iron Physiology

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the iron metabolism.avi

the iron metabolism.avi

Describes Iron metabolism inside our body

Metabolism & Nutrition, part 1: Crash Course A&P #36

Metabolism & Nutrition, part 1: Crash Course A&P #36

Metabolism is a complex process that has a lot more going on than personal trainers and commercials might have you believe. Today we are exploring some of its key parts, including vital nutrients -- such as water, vitamins, minerals, carbs, fats, and proteins -- as well as how anabolic reactions build structures and require energy, while catabolic reactions tear things apart and release energy. Anatomy of Hank Poster: http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-anatomy-and-physiology-poster -- Table of Contents Water, Vitamins, Minerals, Carbs, Fats and Proteins 3:47 Anabolic Reactions Build Structures and Require Energy 2:59 Catabolic Reactions Tear Things Apart and Release Energy 3:17 Metabolism 2:30 *** Crash Course is on Patreon! You can support us directly by signing up at http://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Thanks to the following Patrons for their generous monthly contributions that help keep Crash Course free for everyone forever: Mark , Elliot Beter, Moritz Schmidt, Jeffrey Thompson, Ian Dundore, Jacob Ash, Jessica Wode, Today I Found Out, Christy Huddleston, James Craver, Chris Peters, SR Foxley, Steve Marshall, Simun Niclasen, Eric Kitchen, Robert Kunz, Avi Yashchin, Jason A Saslow, Jan Schmid, Daniel Baulig, Christian , Anna-Ester Volozh -- Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrashCourse Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids

Hemoglobin | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & Medicine | Khan Academy

Hemoglobin | Human anatomy and physiology | Health & Medicine | Khan Academy

Hemoglobin and its role in the circulatory system. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/human-anatomy-and-physiology/introduction-to-hematologic/v/hemoglobin-moves-o2-and-co2?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=healthandmedicine Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/human-anatomy-and-physiology/introduction-to-hematologic/v/the-life-and-times-of-rbcs-and-platelets?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=healthandmedicine Health & Medicine on Khan Academy: No organ quite symbolizes love like the heart. One reason may be that your heart helps you live, by moving ~5 liters (1.3 gallons) of blood through almost 100,000 kilometers (62,000 miles) of blood vessels every single minute! It has to do this all day, everyday, without ever taking a vacation! Now that is true love. Learn about how the heart works, how blood flows through the heart, where the blood goes after it leaves the heart, and what your heart is doing when it makes the sound “Lub Dub.” About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Health & Medicine channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1RAowgA3q8Gl7exSWJuDEw?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy

Iron Storage: Ferritin

Iron Storage:  Ferritin

Iron atoms floating in the blood stream are collected by Transferrin, then transported to various cells for storage. Protein containers like Ferritin store up to ~4500 iron atoms inside their hollow protein core.

Bilirubin Metabolism

Bilirubin Metabolism

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The Iron Disorders Institute Guide to Hemochromatosis Pdf Book

The Iron Disorders Institute Guide to Hemochromatosis Pdf Book

Anatomy and Physiology of Metabolism Nutrition

Anatomy and Physiology of Metabolism Nutrition

Anatomy and Physiology of Metabolism Nutrition food and nutrition articles nut-rition journal of nutrition and metabolism nutrition diseases nutrition journal articles nutrition research articles nutrition & metabolism metabolism and nutrition nutrition metabolism international journal of sports nutrition and exercise metabolism nutritional research nutrition research journal annals of peer reviewed research articles journal of nutrition and metabolism impact factor role of nutrition research on nutrition peer review articles online cardiovascular articles annals of nutrition & metabolism annals of nutrition and metabolism impact factor nutrition and metabolism journal journal science direct nutrition metabolism and cardiovascular diseases impact factor nutrition and diseases biochemical nutrition research in nutrition reviewed articles where can i find peer reviewed articles nutrition magazine articles online peer review nutrition and metabolism society nutrition and metabolism pdf european society for clinical nutrition and metabolism international jour al of nutrition and metabolism peer reviewed nutrition articles journal on nutrition metabolism nutrition cardiovascular pathologies human nutrition and metabolism journal of applied physiology nutrition and metabolism nutrition metabolism and cardiovascular disease research articles on nutrition journal of nutrition research peer review online international journal research

What Is the RNA World Hypothesis?

What Is the RNA World Hypothesis?

You can now support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/statedclearly All living creatures today reproduce and evolve using a complex gene-enzyme cycle. If we look at a cell, for example, information encoded in its genes is used to produce functional proteins called enzymes. Some of those enzymes then turn around to make copies of the cell's genes, allowing the cell to reproduce. Because the gene-enzyme system forms a closed loop, it presents us with a classic chicken or egg conundrum: Which came first, genes or the protein enzymes they code for? While the details are still not fully worked out, discoveries over the past few decades have lead researchers to a surprising possible solution: What really came first? Genes that act as enzymes! The RNA World Hypothesis is the idea that before living cells, the genetic code, and the gene/protein cycle ever existed, chains of a chemical called RNA were forming naturally. Once formed, some of these chains were able to function as enzymes, and were even able to evolve by making copies of themselves with slight, accidental modifications. While there is little doubt that RNA played a crucial role in the early development of life, the complexity of RNA is casting doubt on the idea that RNA was the first truly replicating and evolving chemical system. For this reason, alternatives to the “RNA first” view are also being investigated. Most notable is a proto-RNA hypothesis being studied by the lab of Nicholas Hud, and several metabolism first hypotheses which got their start from the work of Robert Shapiro. At this time, all serious investigations into the origin of life are being done under the overarching idea that life emerged from chemistry. SOURCES AND FURTHER READING RIBOZYMES The first RNA enzymes were discovered in 1982, now known as ribozymes. Here’s is a wonderful review of what we now know about ribozymes (well... as of 2002): Scientific Paper: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770912/ Diverse and highly functional ribozymes can be evolved in the lab. Selection experiments have shown there are many pathways that evolution can take to produce a ribozyme with a given function. This means the evolution of function is much simpler than previously thought! Scientific Paper: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902939/ Nucleotide building ribozymes have been evolved in the lab from random starting chains (this is the experiment discussed in our animation): Scientific Paper: http://www.sfu.ca/~punrau/pdfs/Lau_JACS_2004.pdf INITIAL RNA NUCLEOTIDE SYNTHESIS RNA nucleotides have been shown to form without enzymes under conditions that might have been plausible on the early Earth. That said, the reactions we’ve discovered so far do not appear robust enough to claim that the problem is fully solved: Scientific Paper: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v459/n7244/abs/nature08013.html Nature News overview of the discovery with objections discussed: http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090513/full/news.2009.471.html RNA REPLICATION BEFORE EVOLUTION OF ENZYMES 8 problems with RNA replication and likely solutions to them (note: number 8 now has two independent solutions demonstrated in the lab): Scientific Paper: https://jsystchem.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/1759-2208-3-2 ALTERNATIVES TO THE RNA WORLD HYPOTHESIS Here is an article reviewing the metabolism first hypothesis in contrast to the RNA first view: Blog post by professor Laurance Moran: http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2009/05/metabolism-first-and-origin-of-life.html Here is an article reviewing research into a possible proto RNA World Hypothesis: Media article by quanta magazine https://www.quantamagazine.org/20140205-chemists-pursue-possible-precursor-to-rna/ Learn more about evolution and the origin of life at http://statedclearly.com and at http://centerforchemicalevolution.com

Krebs / citric acid cycle | Cellular respiration | Biology | Khan Academy

Krebs / citric acid cycle | Cellular respiration | Biology | Khan Academy

Overview of the Krebs or Citric Acid Cycle Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/oxidative-phosphorylation/v/oxidative-phosphorylation-and-the-electon-transport-chain?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/cellular-respiration-and-fermentation/glycolysis/v/glycolysis-overview?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=biology Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy's Biology channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC82qE46vcTn7lP4tK_RHhdg?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy

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